The eight Networking Activities, to which the management of the consortium must be added, will link the research programs of participating facilities and institutions through the coordination of work and resources. The networks will form coherent communities of physicists working on related topics, foster theoretical studies of the relevant issues and contribute to the preparation of new experiments. All this activity will improve the performance of the Research Infrastructures and experimental facilities for hadron physics.
Two networks address the theoretical interpretation and modeling of experimental results:

  • WP4: QCDnet will foster the interchange of ideas and methods in non-perturbative QCD and their applications to hadron phenomenology, including few- and many-hadron systems as well as nuclei. It is intimately linked to the experimental efforts at COMPASS, COSY, DAPHNE, ELSA, GSI and MAMI for light-quark systems and at BaBar, BELLE, BES and CLEO for heavy and heavy-light systems. QCDnet will prepare for physics at FAIR and is expected to achieve synergetic effects by coordinating the efforts of analyzing data based on various probes (electromagnetic, hadronic) over a wide range of energies.
  • WP2: TORIC represents most of the European theory groups which work in the field of ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics. The network will help bridge the gap between the various theory communities and stimulate collaboration between theory and experiment. This is necessary to exploit the complex experimental data. TORIC has strong links to the numerical simulation work done in the LatticeQCD JRA and will support the experimental efforts at GSI, FAIR, RHIC and LHC.

Four networking activities bring together groups developing theory and experiment:

  • WP3: TMD-Net concentrates on innovative studies of transverse momentum and spin correlations of partons, which are crucial for understanding the angular momentum structure of the nucleon in terms of quarks and gluons. Current experiments include COMPASS and HERMES as well as experiments at JLab, KEK and RHIC. This physics is an essential part of the program of future facilities such as FAIR at GSI, J-PARC and the proposed EIC.
  • WP5: PrimeNet will coordinate experimental and theoretical activities on light-meson (in particular ? and ?') production at COSY, DAPHNE, ELSA and MAMI. These facilities complement each other by providing both electromagnetic and strong production processes and by using different detector techniques. PrimeNet aims also to enhance cohesion in theoretical approaches to low-energy QCD.
  • WP6: SPHERE will coordinate studies of hypernuclei at FINUDA@DAPHNE, KAOS@MAMI, HYPHI@GSI and PANDA@FAIR. The Network will support the exchange of new ideas and technologies and tighten the relations among the various experimental and theoretical research groups in Europe.
  • WP9: LEANNIS addresses strangeness physics through low-energy antikaon-nucleon and -nucleus interactions. The network will extend the programs at LNF-INFN, GSI, and FZ-Jülich. It also strives to facilitate European participation to the upcoming experiments at the JPARC facility, the participation of Japanese groups in the European projects and prepare for charm physics at FAIR.

Two networks primarily aim at ensuring the success of key experiments:

  • WP8: ReteQuarkonii will coordinate the experimental measurements on quarkonia and open heavy flavours in heavy ions reactions, to be undertaken at the LHC and RHIC in the next five years, and stimulate the theoretical activities. The network will also address quarkonium production in diffractive and electromagnetic processes; this novel production mechanism calls for joint efforts by experimentalists and theorists.
  • WP7: FAIRnet is a worldwide research network for experimental investigations at the FAIR facility. The network will encourage the exchange of expertise and know-how with the aim of developing common tools and infrastructures for the hadron physics detector stations PANDA and CBM. Their many common requirements allow important synergy effects to be achieved in joint R&D on software and hardware.
The network activities cover practically all aspects of on-going and planned research in experimental and theoretical hadron physics, complemented by the LatticeQCD JRA and the ECT* Transnational access facility. A majority of the users of the relevant Research Infrastructures and experimental facilities participate in some activity of HadronPhysics2. The networks cross the traditional boundaries between facilities using electromagnetic, hadronic and heavy-ion probes. This unification was encouraged by HadronPhysics in FP6, and will be further strengthened by HadronPhysics2. To illustrate this point, the table hereafter gives an overview of the networking activities, according to the nature of the probe, facility beam or research method. Other HadronPhysics2 activities with strong connections to the networks are indicated in parenthesis.
Table 1 - Overview of the networking activities according to the nature of the probes
  Leptons & Photons Hadrons Heavy Ions
Experiment PrimeNet

Theory QCDnet (LatticeQCD, ECT*) TORIC

Thus new collaborations between participating institutions, as well as approval of new experiments at the various research infrastructures, will emerge as a result of the networking activity. In addition, the networks have a special role in the enhanced integration of students and young researchers in the European physics community.



The ensemble of the “transnational access activities” offers an increased provision of access to state-of-the-art infrastructures and high quality services:
  • WP10: ECT*, the European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and related Areas is unique and the only Center of this kind in Europe.
  • WP11: MAMI, the Mainz Microtron MAMI excels by its reliability, beam quality, high beam current, which make it unique in Europe, paralleled in the world only by the CEBAF facility at Jefferson Laboratory (USA).
  • WP12: GSI is an accelerator facility for ion beams and secondary pion beams which is unique in Europe. It repeatedly enabled researchers to make new, and sometimes unexpected, discoveries. The high quality of accelerators are complemented by a large number of technically highly advanced experimental facilities.
  • WP13: COSY is the only cooler ring world-wide to study hadron induced reactions in the medium energy regime, complementary to electromagnetically induced reactions studies.
  • WP14: LNF: the Frascati National Laboratories (LNF) holds the world record luminosity for its collider DA?NE at its design energy (1 GeV c.m.). It provides high purity antikaon beams, unique world-wide for antikaon stopped experiments, paralleled by the J-PARC facility in Japan for antikaon in-flight reaction studies.
The set of infrastructures participating to HadronPhysics2 is characterized by a marked complementarity also with other European and world-wide infrastructures.

Complementarity of the energy ranges of delivered beams:
  • Electrons and real photons

    MAMI up to 1.500 MeV

    JLab (USA) up to 6.000 MeV
  • Heavy ions

    GSI versus FAIR and ALICE.

    GSI provides ions beams for all stable elements up to Uranium. Within next years the new complex of accelerators FAIR (Facility for Antiprotons and Ions Research) will be built. Ion beams with higher energy and intensity (up to a factor 20), together with beams of antiprotons and unstable nuclei, will be supported in brilliant quality.

    LHC-ALICE is the global frontline facility for studying ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions.
Complementarity of the approaches
  • Study of hadronic reactions using hadronic and electromagnetic probes.

    COSY proton and deuteron beams up to 3.650 MeV/c


    MAMI electron and real photon beams up to 1.500 MeV
  • Study of a specific channel using different hadronic probes and different detectors.

    The case of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states (DBKNS):

    GSI by pp reactions and the FOPI detector

    COSY by pp reactions and the COSY-TOF detector

    GSI by heavy ion reactions and the FOPI detector

    DAONE-LNF by stopped antikaon reactions and the AMADEUS-KLOE detector

    J-PARC (Japan) by in-flight antikaon reactions.


The next generation of experiments in hadron physics aims at the study of rare processes with drastically improved sensitivity. The technical requirements to reach this goal include high beam intensities and luminosities, and fast radiation-hard detectors with large acceptance, high resolution and a low-material budget. Examples are, among others, the KLOE2 and AMADEUS experiments at DAFNE-LNF, Frascati, Italy, and PANDA and CBM at FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. Gaseous or solid targets for (un)polarized protons and light nuclei play a very essential role for experiments at MAMI, ELSA, COSY and JLab. Experiments with polarized antiprotons would increase the physics potential of FAIR substantially. Innovative computing technologies are required to perform new generation Lattice QCD calculations which provide the guideline for future experiments. The fourteen Joint Research Activities of HadronPhysics2 are devoted to these topics. The JRAs can be grouped in the following categories:
  • Forefront experiments require innovative instrumentation. The next generation particle detectors have to be operated at extremely high counting rates and track densities. Moreover, the detectors should have an excellent time and position resolution, and a low material budget to reduce multiple scattering. The Joint Research Activities within the HadronPhysics2 proposal explore a rich variety of possible detector technologies to achieve these goals: advanced diamond detectors, frontier photon detectors based on nano technology, on inorganic scintillation fibres, or on silicon photo multipliers, large-area low-mass gas counters, fast compact Cherenkov counters for particle identification, ultra-light and large-area tracking systems based on GEM or Micromegas technology, ultra-light tracking and high-resolution vertex detection systems based on silicon sensors. The following proposals deal with detector R&D: WP15: CARAT, WP17: FPCC, WP18: FutureGas, WP20: DIRCs, WP21: SciFi, WP24: JointGEM, WP26: ULISI, WP27: JETCAL, and WP28: SiPM. All European laboratories providing beams for hadronic research will profit from these developments, in particular GSI, LNF, MAMI, COSY, and CERN. The outcome of the projects will be very essential for the forthcoming FAIR project, but also for non- European laboratories like JLab and J-PARC.
  • The development of polarized and unpolarized targets for internal beam experiments and of polarized solid targets for external beam experiments will substantially improve the effective luminosities available to the users of the corresponding research infrastructures. High-luminosity experiments will explore new physics. Innovative techniques will be developed aiming at the continuous operation of polarized target inside a large solenoidal magnetic field. The development of beams of polarized antiprotons will open a new and exciting field of research at FAIR. The following JRAs participate in the R&D: WP16: SPINMAP, WP19: FutureJet and WP25: PolAntiP. European hadron physics has a leading role in the development of high-tech (un)polarized targets and beams. MAMI, COSY and JLab will profit greatly from these activities. The PAX and PANDA projects at FAIR depend strongly on the success of this research.
  • Lattice QCD calculations have become an essential tool to realize and exploit the full potential of the European investment in accelerators and detectors. Cost effective and dedicated computers based on Enhanced Cell BE processors will be developed as an alternative to general purpose supercomputers. The use of high-end graphic processor-units will be pioneered for certain thermodynamics calculations with moderate demand on computer memory and communication. These developments will be pursued within WP22: LatticeQCD.
  • Hard Exclusive Reactions are the key to the present and future stages in the exploration of the structure of hadrons. Further experimental progress requires detector upgrades (such as recoil detectors) and innovative instrumentation for future facilities. A global analysis of hard exclusive reactions will be performed based on improved GPD models and fitting procedures. These activities will be performed within WP23: HardEx. DESY (HERMES), CERN (COMPASS) and JLab (CLAS and CLAS12) will profit most from these developments, but they are also of relevance for FAIR (PAX and PANDA).
Figure 1 hereafter demonstrates the various connections between the different JRAs.